Introductions and Fundamentals Of Computer

If you are the students of computer or are preparing for a competitive exam, it is essential to know about “Fundamentals of Computer.” Because when you take a competitive exam, you will be asked questions from Fundamentals of Computer.

Now, in all government and non-government organizations, basic knowledge of computer (Computer Basic Knowledge) or Fundamentals of Computer, knowledge of Fundamentals of Computer has become mandatory.

Keep this in mind, today we will give you essential information topics covered under Fundamentals of Computer like what is a computer, types of computers, how computers work, history of computers, generation of computers, characteristics of computers, Hardware and software, input and output devices, computer applications, know the advantages and disadvantages of computers, which by understanding them well you can answer any questions related to basic of the computer.

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Modern computers result from many years of hard work, amazing inventions, and many useful discoveries by Researchers and Organizations around the world.

The result of which is the modern computer we are currently using. Let us now know in detail about modern computers. The word computer is derived from the word “Compute” in English, which means “computation,” which is why it is called the computer.

A Computer is an electronic machines that is used for store and process information as we know that computers cannot work on their own. It works according to the instructions given by the user.

How a Computer Works? । Fundamentals of Computer

A computer is a very complex machine, but basically, it follows the input-process-output (IPO) model. A computer is an electronic machines that accepts data, processes it based on instructions, and gives us the output.

The input-process-output (IPO) model is a widely used model in system analysis and software engineering.

  1. InputThe data and instructions were given to the computer using an input device such as a keyboard, mouse, etc. are known as inputs. The computer performs the desired task using the information.
  2. ProcessThe input device’s data is then processed into a central processing unit (CPU). The job of the CPU is to process instructions, perform calculations. The CPU does not only communicate with the input device but also with the output and storage device to achieve the desired functions.

Central processing units (CPUs) have two distinct components:

  1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): It processes Mathematical and Logic related activities.
  2. Control Unit (C.U.): It controls all the computer functions and coordinates between all the computer activities, such as input, output devices, processors, etc.
  3. Output: After the data is processed, or after the desired task is completed, it is output to you through the Output Device. In simple words, the output is the result obtained after processing. Output devices enable a computer to interact with you. These devices display information on a screen, make a print copy or produce a sound. Some of these output devices are monitors, printers, speakers, and headphones.
  4. Storage: The devices used to protect the computer results inside or outside the computer are known as storage. Hard disk drives (HDDs), solid-state drives (SSDs), and USB flash drives (USB) are the most popular storage devices.

History of Computers । Fundamentals of Computer

The history of computers dates back to the primitive era when humans needed to have a device that would allow them to easily count their cattle and easily understand the calculations used in daily life.

Since then, man has been trying to create faster and more accurate and automated calculating tools to develop modern computers.

It’s said that necessity is the mother of inventions. The same is valid for computers. The history of computers begins explicitly with the need to keep a count of cattle.

Soon, he developed a number system and probably started using pebbles for counting. In 3000 BCE, the Chinese invented the Abacus, which is seen as the first calculating tool made by mankind.

Then in 1617 AD, John Napier, a Scottish mathematician, developed Napier’s Bones, a manual calculating device, based on which today’s computers have evolved.

Modern computers are barely 50 years old, but their development history is ancient. Computers are involved in every aspect of our lives in some way or the other.

In the last four decades, computers have changed the way we live and work in our society.

In the points given below, we have explained the timeline of computer history.

  • Abacus: Abacus is a counting device made of a wooden frame and circular beads and is used for addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. It was invented in China.
  • Napier’s Bones: Napier’s Bones consisted of rectangular strips made of animal bones, a manually operated calculating device. Which was invented by the Scottish mathematician John Napier?
  • Pascaline: Pascaline is a mechanical calculator (Calculator) used to add, subtract, and count. Which was invented in the early 17th century by Blaise Pascal?
  • Stepped Reckoner: This was a digital mechanical calculator invented by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was a machine that can do multiplication and division. This machine is also called Stepped Reckoner.
  • Jacquard Loom: This was the first mechanical loom. In this machine, perforated cards were used to insert the weaving design. It was invented in 1801 by Joseph Marie Jacquard.
  • Difference Engine: The differential engine was a mechanical calculator. Which was developed in 1822 by Charles Babbage? It is capable of calculating multiple sets of numbers and making a hard copy of the results. This machine was equipped with shaft and gear, and this machine used to run with steam.
  • Analytical Engine: It was a mechanical machine. Which was designed by the English mathematician Charles Babbage in the 1830s, the world’s first general-purpose computer design?
  • Tabulating Machine: A tabulating machine is an electromechanical machine in which pierced cards did reading. Herman Hollerith invented it, Herman Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company, which later became a company called IBM.
  • Mark-1: A computer built at Harvard University in 1944, Mark I, was the world’s first electromechanical computer.
  • ENIAC: ENIAC was the first digital computer. It was invented by John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania to calculate artillery firing tables for the Ballistic Research Laboratory of the United States Army.
  • EDVAC: This is one of the first electronic computers that used a binary system, a 30-tonne, 150-foot-wide computer. It used to do significant calculations.
  • UNIVAC: UNIVAC was the first commercial computer manufactured in the United States. It was designed primarily by John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, inventors of the ENIAC.

Generation of Computer । Fundamentals of Computer

Computer technology has undergone many changes since 1940, which can be said to have led to a significant revolution in developing advanced computers.

According to the technology used in computers, we can classify computers into five significant generations.

Computer development’s main purpose is to process fast, be small in size, have high storage capacity, and have a low cost.

Generations of Computers । Fundamentals of Computer

  1. First Generation of Computer: The first generation of computers began in 1951 with the invention of UNIVAC-1. Vacuum Tubes were used in those computers. It used to come bigger and produce more heat. Which had to use an air-conditioning machine to keep cool, and a large amount of electricity was spent.
  2. Second Generation Computer: In the second generation computer, a transistor was used instead of a vacuum tube. This computer was faster than the first generation of computers, and their processing capacity was also faster. During this time, computers started in the business world, and industry and new programming languages ​​were developed.
  3. Third Generation of Computer: In the third generation of computers, instead of transistors, integrated circuits (I.C.) were used, which in 1958 J.C. s. Was developed by Kilvi (J.S. Kilby). LSI technology was used in this. In which thousands of transistors were utilized on a silicon semiconductor microchip. Which is known as Large-Scale Integration (LSI)? It worked much faster than the first-generation and second-generation computers. They were smaller in size and cost less.
  4. Fourth Generation Computer: In the fourth generation computer, VLSI was used instead of LSI IC, in which thousands of integrated circuits (I.C.) were used in a silicon chip. The use of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology led to creating a microprocessor, which reduced the computer’s size and increased capacity. During this time, the GUI (Graphical User Interface) was developed, making computers more comfortable.
  5. Fifth Generation of Computer: Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) is being used instead of VLSI in fifth-generation computers. Today, it is possible to do billions of calculations with a single chip (Chip). Fifth-generation computers work much smaller and faster. In the fifth generation, technological advances have expanded in artificial intelligence, voice recognition, virtual reality, the Internet, and fiber-optic networks.

Characteristics of Computer । Fundamentals of Computer

  1. It works faster, which saves time.
  2. The computer does all the work without error. It makes no mistake to complete the task.
  3. It features permanent and large storage capacity.
  4. Computers can perform different types of tasks simultaneously. They can do many tasks at the same times.
  5. You can protect your sensitive information with the login system, password protection, and encryption.

Types Of Computers । Fundamentals of Computer

There are many types of computers. If a computer is so small that it falls into your palm, it is so big that it occupies several rooms in a building.

The type of computer you use in your home is also a computer (computer), commonly known as a microcomputer or personal computer (P.C.). Computers are entirely different from each other in comparison to size and type.

Therefore it is difficult to classify the type of computer. Still, we are categorizing based on data processing speed, size and applications. Mainly computers are of the following types.

Based on Size

  1. Microcomputer
  2. Minicomputer
  3. Mainframe Computer
  4. Supercomputer

Based on Applications

  1. Analog Computer
  2. Digital Computer
  3. Hybrid Computer

Hardware and Software । Fundamentals of Computer

A full computer is made up of two parts: Hardware and software.

  • Hardware: the parts of the computer that you can see, feel, and touch are called computer hardware. These devices are also known as Peripheral Device. CPU, keyboard, monitor, mouse, modem, CD-ROM, etc. are Hardware examples.
  • Software: This is a set of instructions written in a programming language, a group of programs that control a computer system’s functions and between the different Hardware of the computer Establishes coordination so that a particular task can be completed.

Input and Output Devices । Fundamentals of Computer

Input/output devices are known as I / O devices. Tools provide a means of communication between the computer and its user.

Fundamentals Of Computer, Computer Fundamentals,
  • Input Device: An input device is used to input data and information into a computer. Keyboard, Mouse, and Scanner are examples of standard input devices.
  • Output Device: An output device is used to view or receive the results obtained by a computer. Monitor, Printer, and Speaker are examples of standard output devices.

Application of computers । Fundamentals of Computer

Computers are used in many fields. Such as:

  1. In the field of education.
  2. In the field of banking.
  3. In the field of scientific research.
  4. In the field of medical science.
  5. In the field of defense.
  6. In the field of communication.
  7. In the field of entertainment.
  8. In the field of business.
  9. In the field of Publication.
  10. In the area of security.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers । Fundamentals of Computer

The following are the advantages of computers:

  1. Time-saving – With computers’ help, we can complete many of our tasks in a few hours or minutes, which takes us days or months to complete. This saves us time.
  2. Saving Money – Computer alone can do many people’s work without any error, saving your money.
  3. Increased productivity – Computer-driven machines can be used in various industries to increase productivity. So that more production can be done at less cost.
  4. An increase in employment – Computer has provided employment opportunities in many new fields as computer works on us’ instructions.
  5. Improvement in living standards – Due to the use of computers, society’s quality of life has improved a lot, as the Internet has become the best medium of communication. Through online banking, you can exchange money at home. Saves you time.

The following are the disadvantages of computers:

  1. Waste of Time – Some people are abusing computers. They spend all day on social media, playing computer games, watching online videos and movies, and wasting their time.
  2. Weakness in the eyes – Excessive use of computers makes the eyes dry, which is harmful to our eyes and the real reason for weakening our eyes. Also, using a computer to put more pressure on the eyes reduces eye light.
  3. Waist and Headache – Waist Pain and Headache is a common problem due to prolonged use of the computer. Therefore, you must take a break.
  4. Insomnia and depression – Scientific research has shown that insomnia complaints are found to be higher among those who run the computer for more than 5 hours. Also, spending more time on the computer can lead to serious health problems like depression.
  5. Privacy threat – We keep all our files or any sensitive data on the computer and use the Internet to share them. Still, in this technology era, we often forget that no technology is 100% secure. Is. Meanwhile, if our data falls into the wrong hands, it can be hazardous for our privacy.


Friends, as we have read above, computer knowledge has become mandatory in all government and non-government organizations.

Also, compulsory computer examination is being done in various competitive exams. Therefore, it is essential to know about the “Fundamentals of Computer.”

I promise this blog will prove useful for you and reading it will increase your computer knowledge. However, if you have any questions, you can comment if you liked this post, then share it on social media.

कृपया अपना महत्वपूर्ण विचार अवश्य दें!!